use T1 encoding and force '--' in texttt
[packaging-tutorial.git] / packaging-tutorial.tex
index 960858d..64aebde 100644 (file)
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 \hypersetup{bookmarks}
 \title{Debian Packaging Tutorial}
 \author[]{Lucas Nussbaum\\{\small\texttt{lucas@debian.org}}}
-\date{\footnotesize version 0.1 - 2011-05-25}
+\date{\footnotesize version 0.3 - 2011-08-26}
 
 \begin{document}
 
@@ -178,8 +178,9 @@ rw-r--r-- 0/0 751613 Sep  5 15:43 2010 data.tar.gz
 \subsection{Rebuilding dash}
 \begin{frame}{Example: rebuilding dash}
 \begin{enumerate}
-\item Install build-essential, devscripts and debhelper (needed to build dash)\\
-  {\texttt{apt-get install build-essential devscripts debhelper}}
+\item Install packages needed to build dash, and devscripts\\
+  {\texttt{apt-get build-dep dash}}\\
+  {\texttt{apt-get install -{}-no-install-recommends devscripts}}
   \hbr
 \item Create a working directory, and get in it:\\
  \texttt{mkdir /tmp/debian-tutorial ; cd /tmp/debian-tutorial}
@@ -487,7 +488,7 @@ Description: retrieves files from the web
     \item Called from \texttt{debian/rules}
     \item Configurable using command parameters or files in \texttt{debian/}
     \end{itemize}
-    {\footnotesize \ttfamily dirs, \textsl{package}.docs, \textsl{package}.examples,
+    {\footnotesize \ttfamily \textsl{package}.docs, \textsl{package}.examples,
       \textsl{package}.install, \textsl{package}.manpages, \ldots} \hbr
   \item Third-party helpers for sets of packages: \textbf{python-support},
     \textbf{dh\_ocaml}, \ldots \hbr
@@ -496,7 +497,7 @@ Description: retrieves files from the web
 \end{frame}
 
 \begin{frame}[fragile]{debian/rules using debhelper (1/2)}
-  \begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize]
+  \begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize,escapeinside=\{\}]
 #!/usr/bin/make -f
 
 # Uncomment this to turn on verbose mode.
@@ -524,7 +525,7 @@ install: build
 \end{frame}
 
 \begin{frame}[fragile]{debian/rules using debhelper (2/2)}
-  \begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize]
+  \begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize,escapeinside=\{\}]
 
 # Build architecture-independent files here.
 binary-indep: build install
@@ -560,14 +561,14 @@ binary: binary-indep binary-arch
     \hbr
   \item Second-level helpers that factor common functionality
     \begin{itemize}
-    \item Building with \texttt{./configure \&\& make \&\& make install} or CMake
-    \item Support for Perl, Python, Ruby, GNOME, KDE, Java, Haskell, \ldots
+    \item E.g building with \texttt{./configure \&\& make \&\& make install} or CMake
     \end{itemize}
     \hbr
   \item CDBS:
     \begin{itemize}
     \item Introduced in 2005, based on advanced \textsl{GNU make} magic
     \item Documentation: \texttt{/usr/share/doc/cdbs/}
+    \item Support for Perl, Python, Ruby, GNOME, KDE, Java, Haskell, \ldots
     \item But some people hate it:
       \begin{itemize}
       \item Sometimes difficult to customize package builds:\\
@@ -577,7 +578,7 @@ binary: binary-indep binary-arch
     \end{itemize}
   \end{itemize}
   \seprule
-      \begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize]
+      \begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize,escapeinside=\{\}]
 #!/usr/bin/make -f
 include /usr/share/cdbs/1/rules/debhelper.mk
 include /usr/share/cdbs/1/class/autotools.mk
@@ -620,7 +621,7 @@ override_dh_auto_build:
   \hbr
   \begin{itemize}
   \item Mind shares:\\
-    Classic debhelper: 41\% \hskip 1em CDBS: 23\% \hskip 1em  dh: 34\%
+    Classic debhelper: 40\% \hskip 1em CDBS: 23\% \hskip 1em  dh: 36\%
     \hbr
   \item Which one should I learn?
     \begin{itemize}
@@ -951,71 +952,51 @@ Vcs-Svn: svn://svn.debian.org/pkg-perl/trunk/libwww-perl
     \item Disappear
     \end{enumerate}
     \br
-  \item Adopt existing unmaintained packages (\textsl{orphaned packages})
-    \begin{itemize}
-    \item Many unmaintained packages in Debian
-    \item Including some that you use daily!
-    \end{itemize}
-    \br
-  \item Get involved in packaging teams
+  \item \textbf{Better} ways to contribute:
+         \begin{itemize}
+                 \item Get involved in packaging teams
     \begin{itemize}
     \item Many teams that focus on set of packages, and need help
     \item List available at \url{http://wiki.debian.org/Teams}
     \item An excellent way to learn from more experienced contributors
     \end{itemize}
     \br
+\item Adopt existing unmaintained packages (\textsl{orphaned packages})
+    \br
   \item Bring new software to Debian
     \begin{itemize}
     \item Only if it's interesting/useful enough, please
     \item Are there alternatives already packaged in Debian?
     \end{itemize}
   \end{itemize}
-\end{frame}
 
-\subsection{More interested in Ubuntu?}
-\begin{frame}{More interested in Ubuntu?}
-  \begin{itemize}
-  \item Ubuntu mainly manages the divergence with Debian
-    \br
-  \item No real focus on specific packages\\
-    Instead, collaboration with Debian teams
-    \br
-  \item Usually recommend uploading new packages to Debian first\\
-    \url{https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UbuntuDevelopment/NewPackages}
-    \br
-  \item Possibly a better plan:
-    \begin{itemize}
-    \item Get involved in a Debian team and act as a bridge with Ubuntu
-      \hbr
-    \item Help reduce divergence, triage bugs in Launchpad
-      \hbr
-    \item Many Debian tools can help:
-      \begin{itemize}
-      \item Ubuntu column on the Developer's packages overview
-      \item Ubuntu box on the Package Tracking System
-      \item Receive launchpad bugmail via the PTS
-      \end{itemize}
-    \end{itemize}
   \end{itemize}
 \end{frame}
 
 \subsection{Adopting orphaned packages}
 \begin{frame}{Adopting orphaned packages}
+      \hbr
   \begin{itemize}
-  \item Full list: \url{http://www.debian.org/devel/wnpp/}
+    \item Many unmaintained packages in Debian
+    \hbr
+  \item Full list + process: \url{http://www.debian.org/devel/wnpp/}
     \hbr
   \item Installed on your machine: \texttt{wnpp-alert}
     \hbr
   \item Different states:
     \begin{itemize}
+                   \small
     \item \textbf{O}rphaned: the package is unmaintained\\
       Feel free to adopt it
+      \hbr
     \item \textbf{RFA}: \textbf{R}equest \textbf{F}or \textbf{A}dopter\\
       Maintainer looking for adopter, but continues work in the meantime\\
       Feel free to adopt it. A mail to the current maintainer is polite
+      \hbr
     \item \textbf{ITA}: \textbf{I}ntent \textbf{T}o \textbf{A}dopt\\
       Someone intends to adopt the package\\
       You could propose your help!
+      \hbr
     \item \textbf{RFH}: \textbf{R}equest \textbf{F}or \textbf{H}elp\\
       The maintainer is looking for help
     \end{itemize}
@@ -1059,11 +1040,10 @@ Vcs-Svn: svn://svn.debian.org/pkg-perl/trunk/libwww-perl
   \br
   You can get help from:
   \begin{itemize}
-  \item Other members of a packaging team: the best solution
+         \item \textbf{Other members of a packaging team}
     \begin{itemize}
     \item They know the specifics of your package
     \item You can become a member of the team
-    \item See \url{http://wiki.debian.org/Teams}
     \end{itemize}
     \hbr
   \item The Debian Mentors group (if your package doesn't fit in a team)
@@ -1116,6 +1096,33 @@ Vcs-Svn: svn://svn.debian.org/pkg-perl/trunk/libwww-perl
   \end{itemize}
 \end{frame}
 
+\subsection{More interested in Ubuntu?}
+\begin{frame}{More interested in Ubuntu?}
+  \begin{itemize}
+  \item Ubuntu mainly manages the divergence with Debian
+    \br
+  \item No real focus on specific packages\\
+    Instead, collaboration with Debian teams
+    \br
+  \item Usually recommend uploading new packages to Debian first\\
+    \url{https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UbuntuDevelopment/NewPackages}
+    \br
+  \item Possibly a better plan:
+    \begin{itemize}
+    \item Get involved in a Debian team and act as a bridge with Ubuntu
+      \hbr
+    \item Help reduce divergence, triage bugs in Launchpad
+      \hbr
+    \item Many Debian tools can help:
+      \begin{itemize}
+      \item Ubuntu column on the Developer's packages overview
+      \item Ubuntu box on the Package Tracking System
+      \item Receive launchpad bugmail via the PTS
+      \end{itemize}
+    \end{itemize}
+  \end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
 \section{Conclusion}
 \subsection{Conclusion}
 \begin{frame}{Conclusion}
@@ -1233,8 +1240,310 @@ Vcs-Svn: svn://svn.debian.org/pkg-perl/trunk/libwww-perl
 \end{enumerate}
 \end{frame}
 
-\backupbegin
+\section{Answers to practical sessions}
+
+\begin{frame}
+       \begin{center}
+               \LARGE Answers to\\[0.5em]  practical sessions
+       \end{center}
+\end{frame}
+
+
+\subsection{Practical session 1: modifying the grep package}
+
+\begin{frame}{Practical session: modifying the grep package}
+\begin{enumerate}
+       \item Go to \url{http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/g/grep/} and
+               download version 2.6.3-3 of the package
+       \item Look at the files in \texttt{debian/}.
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item           How many binary packages are generated by this source package?
+                       \item           Which packaging helper does this package use?
+               \end{itemize}
+    \hbr
+       \item Build the package
+    \hbr
+       \item We are now going to modify the package. Add a changelog entry and increase the version number.
+    \hbr
+       \item Now disable perl-regexp support (it is a \texttt{./configure} option)
+    \hbr
+       \item Rebuild the package
+    \hbr
+       \item Compare the original and the new package with debdiff
+    \hbr
+       \item Install the newly built package
+    \hbr
+       \item Cry if you messed up ;)
+\end{enumerate}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Fetching the source}
+\begin{enumerate}
+       \item Go to \url{http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/g/grep/} and
+               download version 2.6.3-3 of the package
+\end{enumerate}
+\begin{itemize}
+       \item Use dget to download the \texttt{.dsc} file:\\
+               {\small \texttt{dget http://cdn.debian.net/debian/pool/main/g/grep/grep\_2.6.3-3.dsc}}
+               \hbr
+       \item According to \texttt{http://packages.qa.debian.org/grep}, \texttt{grep} version 2.6.3-3 is currently in \textsl{stable} (\textsl{squeeze}). If you have \texttt{deb-src} lines for \textsl{squeeze} in your \texttt{/etc/apt/sources.list}, you can use:\\
+               \texttt{apt-get source grep=2.6.3-3}\\
+               or \texttt{apt-get source grep/stable}\\
+               or, if you feel lucky: \texttt{apt-get source grep}
+       \hbr
+       \item The \texttt{grep} source package is composed of three files:
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item \texttt{grep\_2.6.3-3.dsc}
+                       \item \texttt{grep\_2.6.3-3.debian.tar.bz2}
+                       \item \texttt{grep\_2.6.3.orig.tar.bz2}
+               \end{itemize}
+               This is typical of the "3.0 (quilt)" format.
+       \hbr
+\item If needed, uncompress the source with\\
+       \texttt{dpkg-source -x grep\_2.6.3-3.dsc}
+\end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Looking around and building the package}
+       \begin{enumerate}
+                       \setcounter{enumi}{1}
+       \item Look at the files in \texttt{debian/}.
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item           How many binary packages are generated by this source package?
+                       \item           Which packaging helper does this package use?
+               \end{itemize}
+       \end{enumerate}
+       \hbr
+       \begin{itemize}
+               \item According to \texttt{debian/control}, this package only generates one binary package, named \texttt{grep}.
+                       \hbr
+               \item According to \texttt{debian/rules}, this package is typical of \textsl{classic} debhelper packaging, without using \textsl{CDBS} or \textsl{dh}. One can see the various calls to \texttt{dh\_*} commands in \texttt{debian/rules}.
+       \end{itemize}
+       \hbr
+       \begin{enumerate}
+                       \setcounter{enumi}{2}
+
+               \item Build the package
+       \end{enumerate}
+       \hbr
+       \begin{itemize}
+               \item Use \texttt{apt-get build-dep grep} to fetch the build-dependencies
+               \item Then \texttt{debuild} or \texttt{dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc} (Takes about 1 min)
+       \end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Editing the changelog}
+       \begin{enumerate}
+                       \setcounter{enumi}{3}
 
-\backupend
+       \item We are now going to modify the package. Add a changelog entry and increase the version number.
+       \end{enumerate}
+       \hbr
+       \begin{itemize}
+               \item \texttt{debian/changelog} is a text file. You could edit it and add a new entry manually.
+       \hbr
+               \item Or you can use \texttt{dch -i}, which will add an entry and open the editor
+       \hbr
+               \item The name and email can be defined using the \texttt{DEBFULLNAME} and \texttt{DEBEMAIL} environment variables
+       \hbr
+               \item After that, rebuild the package: a new version of the package is built
+       \hbr
+               \item Package versioning is detailed in section 5.6.12 of the Debian policy\\
+                       \url{http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html}
+       \end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Disabling Perl regexp support and rebuilding}
+       \begin{enumerate}
+                       \setcounter{enumi}{4}
+
+       \item Now disable perl-regexp support (it is a \texttt{./configure} option)
+       \item Rebuild the package
+       \end{enumerate}
+       \hbr
+       \begin{itemize}
+         \item Check with \texttt{./configure -{}-help}: the option to disable
+           Perl regexp is \texttt{-{}-disable-perl-regexp}
+       \hbr
+               \item Edit \texttt{debian/rules} and find the \texttt{./configure} line
+       \hbr
+               \item Add \texttt{-{}-disable-perl-regexp}
+       \hbr
+               \item Rebuild with \texttt{debuild} or \texttt{dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc}
+       \end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Comparing and testing the packages}
+       \begin{enumerate}
+                       \setcounter{enumi}{6}
+
+       \item Compare the original and the new package with debdiff
+       \item Install the newly built package
+       \end{enumerate}
+       \hbr
+       \begin{itemize}
+               \item Compare the binary packages: \texttt{debdiff ../*changes}
+       \hbr
+               \item Compare the source packages: \texttt{debdiff ../*dsc}
+       \hbr
+               \item Install the newly built package: \texttt{debi}\\
+                       Or \texttt{dpkg -i ../grep\_<TAB>}
+       \hbr
+               \item \texttt{grep -P foo} no longer works!
+       \end{itemize}
+\br
+\begin{enumerate}
+               \setcounter{enumi}{8}
+       \item Cry if you messed up ;)
+\end{enumerate}
+\hbr
+Or not: reinstall the previous version of the package:
+\begin{itemize}
+       \item \texttt{apt-get install -{}-reinstall grep=2.6.3-3} \textit{(= previous version)}
+\end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\subsection{Practical session 2: packaging GNUjump}
+\begin{frame}{Practical session 2: packaging GNUjump}
+\begin{enumerate}
+       \item Download GNUjump 1.0.6 from
+               \url{http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnujump/1.0.6/gnujump-1.0.6.tar.gz}
+               \br
+       \item Create a Debian package for it
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item Install build-dependencies so that you can build the package
+                       \item Get a basic working package
+                       \item Finish filling \texttt{debian/control} and other files
+               \end{itemize}
+               \br
+       \item Enjoy
+\end{enumerate}
+\centerline{\includegraphics[width=5cm]{figs/gnujump.png}}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}[fragile]{Step by step\ldots}
+\begin{itemize}
+       \item \texttt{wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnujump/1.0.6/gnujump-1.0.6.tar.gz}
+               \hbr
+       \item \texttt{mv gnujump-1.0.6.tar.gz gnujump\_1.0.6.orig.tar.gz}
+               \hbr
+       \item \texttt{tar xf gnujump\_1.0.6.orig.tar.gz}
+               \hbr
+       \item \texttt{cd gnujump-1.0.6/}
+               \hbr
+       \item \texttt{dh\_make}
+       \begin{itemize}
+               \item \small Type of package: single binary (for now)
+       \end{itemize}
+\end{itemize}
+\begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\small]
+gnujump-1.0.6$ ls debian/
+changelog           gnujump.default.ex   preinst.ex
+compat              gnujump.doc-base.EX  prerm.ex
+control             init.d.ex            README.Debian
+copyright           manpage.1.ex         README.source
+docs                manpage.sgml.ex      rules
+emacsen-install.ex  manpage.xml.ex       source
+emacsen-remove.ex   menu.ex              watch.ex
+emacsen-startup.ex  postinst.ex
+gnujump.cron.d.ex   postrm.ex
+\end{lstlisting}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}[fragile]{Step by step \ldots (2)}
+\begin{itemize}
+       \item Look at \texttt{debian/changelog}, \texttt{debian/rules}, \texttt{debian/control}\\
+               (auto-filled by \textbf{dh\_make})
+               \hbr
+       \item In \texttt{debian/control}:\\
+               \texttt{Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 7.0.50~), autotools-dev}\\
+               Lists the \textsl{build-dependencies} = packages needed to build the package
+               \hbr
+       \item Try to build the package as-is (thanks to \textbf{dh} magic)
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item And add build-dependencies, until it builds
+                       \item Hint: use \texttt{apt-cache search} and \texttt{apt-file} to find the packages
+                       \item Example:
+\begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\footnotesize]
+checking for sdl-config... no
+checking for SDL - version >= 1.2.0... no
+[...]
+configure: error: *** SDL version 1.2.0 not found!
+\end{lstlisting}
+$\rightarrow$ Add \textbf{libsdl1.2-dev} to Build-Depends and install it.
+               \hbr
+       \item Better: use \textbf{pbuilder} to build in a clean environment
+               \end{itemize}
+\end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Step by step \ldots (3)}
+\begin{itemize}
+       \item After installing \texttt{libsdl1.2-dev, libsdl-image1.2-dev, libsdl-mixer1.2-dev}, the package builds fine.
+               \hbr
+       \item Use \texttt{debc} to list the content of the generated package.
+               \hbr
+       \item Use \texttt{debi} to install it and test it.
+               \hbr
+       \item Fill in \texttt{debian/control} using \url{http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html}
+               \hbr
+       \item Test the package with \texttt{lintian}
+               \hbr
+       \item Remove the files that you don't need in \texttt{debian/}
+               \hbr
+       \item Compare your package with the one already packaged in Debian:
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item It splits the data files to a second package, that is the same across all architectures ($\rightarrow$ saves space in the Debian archive)
+                       \item It installs a .desktop file (for the GNOME/KDE menus) and also integrates into the Debian menu
+                       \item It fixes a few minor problems using patches
+               \end{itemize}
+\end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
+
+\subsection{Practical session 3: packaging a Java library}
+\begin{frame}{Practical session 3: packaging a Java library}
+\begin{enumerate}
+       \item Take a quick look at some documentation about Java packaging:\\
+               \begin{itemize}
+               \item \url{http://wiki.debian.org/Java}
+      \hbr
+               \item \url{http://wiki.debian.org/Java/Packaging}
+      \hbr
+               \item \url{http://www.debian.org/doc/packaging-manuals/java-policy/}
+      \hbr
+               \item \url{http://pkg-java.alioth.debian.org/docs/tutorial.html}
+      \hbr
+               \item Paper and slides from a Debconf10 talk about javahelper:\\
+                       {\footnotesize
+                       \url{http://pkg-java.alioth.debian.org/docs/debconf10-javahelper-paper.pdf}\\
+                       \url{http://pkg-java.alioth.debian.org/docs/debconf10-javahelper-slides.pdf}}
+               \end{itemize}
+               \br
+       \item Download IRClib from \url{http://moepii.sourceforge.net/}
+               \br
+       \item Package it
+\end{enumerate}
+\end{frame}
+
+\begin{frame}{Step by step\ldots}
+\begin{itemize}
+       \item \texttt{apt-get install javahelper}
+               \hbr
+       \item Create a basic source package: \texttt{jh\_makepkg}
+               \begin{itemize}
+                       \item Library
+                       \item None
+                       \item Default Free compiler/runtime
+               \end{itemize}
+               \hbr
+       \item Look at and fix \texttt{debian/*}
+               \hbr
+       \item \texttt{dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc} or \texttt{debuild}
+               \hbr
+       \item \texttt{lintian}, \texttt{debc}, etc.
+               \hbr
+       \item Compare your result with the \texttt{libirclib-java} source package
+\end{itemize}
+\end{frame}
 
 \end{document}